Nope, Caulifla will never be able to surpass Goku unless some kind of special transformation, (otherwise known as bullshit plot), makes it so.
See the SSJ transformations give boosts to the user by multiplying their base form. Even these new forms have to follow that rule. Caulifla can go SSJ and SSJ 2, but even in those forms at her max, they’d never match up to Goku in the same forms at max power. Goku’s been training his base form for 30–40 years already, Caulifla looks to be about a teenager.
She doesn’t have the battle experience, nor power to compete at all.